Feeding Ration for Animal Maintainance (new) I Mshindo Media

Feeding of indigenous chicken is of importance in order to increase production of meat and eggs.
A lack of feed and water will reduce resistance to disease, parasites and mortality.
 Under a free-range chicken production system with temporarily confinement during planting season and at night, you can supply grains, by-products of grains or tubers besides the green forage and seeds they collect during scavenging.
With a variety of feeds (plants and insects), requirements for minerals, trace-elements and vitamins are likely to be met.
Water should be available at all times.
Young chicken should be fed with easy to digest feeds that are energy and protein rich.
Types of Feeds Starter diet : 

Chick mash – high in protein offered upto 8 weeks

Growers’ diet : Medium in protein offered from 9- 19 weeks

Layer diet: Lower in protein offered from 19 weeks onwardsFeed FormulationEnergy feeds: Maize, millet, sorghum, sugar, maize bran, pollard, wheat bran, maize germ, roots and tubersForms over 75% of poultry feed

For Body Maintenance requirements e.g. body temperature, vital functions and exercise

Protein feeds: Blood meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, cotton seed, soya meal, sunflower meal, peanut meal, beans, peas, oil cakes, fish, maggots, termites, worms, insects.Form less than 20% of poultry diet due to high costs among others

Needed for growth, production and optimal health

Minerals feeds: Bone meal, burned eggshells

Important for bone and egg formation

For optimal health status Important minerals are calcium and phosphorous in a ratio of 2:1

Vitamins: Green grass, vegetables, fresh cow dung (scavenging birds)Important for optimal health status i.e. disease preventionImportant vitamins; A, B2 and D

Non-nutrient substancesGritsWaterMedications

Growth promoters



semi intensive


Flock size mainly in small scale production


For home consumptionHome consumption /incomegenerationIncome generationSocial RoleSocial & cultural importanceSocial importanceNo social importance


  • Indigenous
  • Indigenous/improved
  • Improved
  • Mortality
  • High mortality
  • Moderate mortality
  • Low mortality
  • Feed Source
  • Scavenging
  • Scavenging+  Supplementation
  • Commercial feeds
  • Disease control
  • No vaccination
  • Newcastle disease vaccination and occasionally Fowl pox
  • Various vaccination schemes


Shared with other household members at night

Simple housing made of local material with a run

Housing made of conventional material

Common Feed Problems

Fish – fishy taste to meat and eggs

Cassava – contains cyanide which is toxic

Oil and seed cakes can contain excessive amounts of oil and fiberBeans and peas contain a number of anti-nutritional substances

Feed Consumption formular

Age in Weeks

Feed Consumption (g/day) Cumulative Feed (kg)

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