The cheapest and most-effective method of disease control  is through implementing *biosecurity*.

 *Bio security* ensures that the health and well being of your birds are protected hence improving the immunity and performance of your flock.

*Bio security* is a management practice designed to prevent entry of diseases into a farm, and limit spread. It is an essential element to a good animal husbandry process.

It is important that every poultry farmer checks if their bio security plans are strong enough to keep out diseases. Infectious diseases are introduced on farms through:

Introducing diseased or carrier birds. ( from infected parent stock, buying old birds from other farmers etc)

 Visitors’ , suppliers, vets,and farmers clothing, shoes and vehicles. *A VET WHO NEVER FOLLOWS BIO SECURITY GUIDELINES IS A VECTOR*

 Poor disposal of dead birds’ carcasses, Feathers and litter

 Contaminated drinking water provided to the birds. Contamination at the water source, in the reservoir tank or in the water pipes.

Rodents and wild birds. Rats move farm to farm, mites biting different birds, cats moving house to house. At one farm, a monkey  fell into an open water tank , died from there and was realised when hair from its skin were seen blocking nipples !!

Egg transmission: setting contaminated eggs with clean eggs in one hatchery!!, diseases that are from the parent stock, etc

 Farmer’s ornamental birds and pets: keeping pigeons, geese, etc on a commercial farm of exotic birds is not allowed.

 Airborne infections: these diseases that cause flu, cough, can be transmitted through the wind. There was a time last year where 8 farms in the same location in nansana where all affected by Newcastle and infectious bronchitis .

*For an effective bio security plan*, there are three aspects that should be considered: Isolation, Human traffic control and sanitation.This is done through confining the birds in a controlled environment and keeping all other animals out. This is achieved through:

• Construction of fences, putting a gate : to control traffic in and out of the farm

• Practicing all-in-all-out poultry management. Keeping birds of different age groups in one house is highly risky.
 At yokuku, birds are kept as a flock from day-old chicks till they are slaughtered. After slaughter, the house is washed, disinfected using very strong disinfectants and rested for 3 weeks to ensure that pathogens are killed before introducing any new flock.
New birds should be day-old chicks as old birds are likely to be carriers. If you have to introduce any bird or birds into the farm, ensure that there is an isolation unit far as possible from the resident birds: These new birds should be isolated for 2-4 weeks; during this period the birds will be observed for signs of diseases and treated if any is seen, and should be vaccinated before introducing them nearer to the flocks at the farm.
A vet carrying out farm visits should not visit any other farm after visiting a sick farm!
When a vet visits, he should start with the youngest flock at the farm.
Farmers should handle the new birds last after all the others. Ensure you obtain new birds from a reliable source.

 Keeping rodents and wild birds away: Rodents spread diseases into the farm through their droppings or secretions.
They are kept out through placing wire nets and avoiding spillage of feeds outside the poultry house. Also ensure there are no dams near the poultry house as this attracts water birds.

Clear the surroundings of bushes and shrubs as these provide hiding areas for rodents , mosquitoes and other wild animals.

Human traffic control:
Humans are the biggest threat to spread of diseases. Humans transfer diseases through their clothing, shoes, hands, equipment and vehicles. Every farmer should control the number of people that come into the farm. Control movements of poultrymen out of the farm.

The poultry house should be kept clean to ensure that there is no spread of diseases. Chicken litter should be dry at all times as wet and dirty litter predisposes the birds to coccidiosis among other infections.

Visitors should have their cars disinfected and their shoes too at the entrance to the farm. Everyone should wash their hands with a disinfectant and wear protective clothing – a dust coat and gumboots before they enter into the poultry house.

There should be a foot-bath at the entrance of every poultry house that all visitors should dip their foot wear. With the emphasis on this foot bath, i have found out many of you here do not regularly change the disinfectant in the foot bath, and putting *JIK* in a footbath exposed to the sun is not advisable.

All farmers should disinfect their hands, shoes and clothing especially after being in direct contact with other livestock and family pets.

The other important way to prevent entry of diseases into the farms is through *vaccinations* . Vaccines aid in providing your birds with a strong immune system that is able to resist infections.

Never vaccinate sick birds; vaccines are only meant for prevention and not treatment. And every after vaccination, we give Ant_stress for seven days to the birds to keep them stress free, and highly productive.
Always keep records as this is an essential tool in ensuring good bio-security measures have been attained.
It is also important to note that healthy birds that are free from stress will develop an active immune system that protects them from diseases. Ant_stress protects these birds against stress ( like stress from vaccination, debeaking, transportation, weather changes, change of feed, deworming, etc)
Stress free birds are those that are not kept in crowded environments, are fed on a balanced diet with ample clean drinking water,

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